Prisoner Responses to Terrorism: Online Radicalisation Proposal
6.0 EFFECTIVENESS OF DE-RADICALISATION PROGRAMS
6.1 INSTITUTE FOR THE STUDY OF ASYMMETRIC CONFLICT
• Politicised notions of total victory, where adversaries suffer an unambiguous and comprehensive defeat, do not "readily apply to asymmetric conflicts involved in insurgencies and terrorism"
• Terrorism experts agree that terrorists represent a tip of an iceberg, "an apex of a pyramid at the base of which are the supporters, or co-subscribers to the ideology."
6.2 PRISONS AND TERRORISM: ICSR REPORT
• Strategies of collective disengagement are not applicable to Australia due to the small number of radicalised individuals.
Key elements of effective individual de-radicalisation programs:
i. A diverse range of programming (i.e. combining ideological/religious re-education and vocation training)
ii. Credible interlocutors, who can relate to prisoners' personal and psychological needs;
iii. Emphasis on prisoners' transition back into mainstream society, typically by providing them with the means for a new beginning and by establishing social networks away from extremism;
iv. Locking prisoners into multiple commitments/obligations towards family, community and the state;
v. Material inducements.
de-radicalisation and disengagement programmes show that prisons are not just about locking people away, but, that they can make a real and positive contribution to tackling problems of radicalisation and terrorism in society as a whole.' By providing these sort of programs within prison cells it turns them into a positive role in tackling the problems of radicalisation, as the support services are readily available and personals to each prisoner.
6.3 EFFECTIVENESS OF NEW PRISM PROGRAM IN AUSTRALIA
The PRISM program, a federally funded initiative instituted in February 2016, is still in its infancy, and there is no good practice regarding the de-radicalisation of individuals. This program needs to be closely watched and reviewed to ensure that it is achieving the results that it seeks to. It is mainly based on early identification and attempts to change the ideology of the prisoners, making it different to the Saudi Arabian approach, which emphasises behavioural change rather than a prisoner's perceived radical ideology.
6.3.1 PRISM IN RELATION TO INTERNATIONAL JURISDICTION PROGRAMS
The minimal clarity surrounding the concept and implementation of the PRISM program means that it is not as widely revered as those in some of the international jurisdictions mentioned. Furthermore, there is a need to look towards other de-radicalisation practices overseas and in other jurisdictions in order to ensure that the PRISM program is as effective as it can be.